Characteristics of a Good Automotive Repair Mechanic

Knowledgeable on various auto parts.

This is perhaps the most basic characteristic that any auto mechanic should have. Lots of different auto parts are out in the market today. And because we, as car owners, do not necessarily possess the sufficient knowledge when it comes to vehicle parts, we will inevitably depend on the expertise of our mechanic. A simple trick to determine if your chosen car specialist really knows his business is to ask him to differentiate a few parts and gauge whether he is confidently answering your question or is just making his way around.

Diverse background on automotive repair experiences.

Years ago when the makes of our vehicles were much simpler, any mechanic would have been okay. But with today's high-tech and complex vehicles including family sedans, sports and luxury cars, SUVs, and pick-up trucks, we need someone who has a diverse background in automotive repair services. Mistakes have no room when it comes to automotive repair as these will only make things even more costly. Choose a mechanic who has certifications of training programs and classes that he has attended. The mechanic's time spent in studying as well as in the actual practice of automotive repair is very advantageous for us car owners.

ASE certified to be an automotive repair professional.

Speaking of certifications, perhaps the most famous and widely recognized one, when it comes to professionals in the automotive industry is the ASE certification. Annually, an estimated 100,000 automotive technicians take ASE certification exams each May and November at over 750 locations.

With an ASE certification, we are assured that our mechanic has good background in all automotive services because an ASE certification requires a minimum of two years work experience in addition to passing a series of examinations that include Engine Repair, Engine Performance, Electrical / Electronic Systems , Brakes, Heating and Air Conditioning, Suspension and Steering, Manual Drive Train and Axles, and Automatic Transmissions for auto technicians alone. There are separate tests for those who want to be collision repair technicians, engine machinists, parts specialists, and others.

Furthermore, all ASE certifications have expiration dates which require technicians to re-test every five years to keep up with technology and to remain certified.

Works in a reputable auto center.

Unfortunately, ASE certifications apply only to individuals and not to auto centers. However, an auto center with at least one ASE certified mechanic is allowed to display the ASE sign. Furthermore, an auto center that has 75% ASE certified mechanics among its employees are given the Blue Seal of Excellence from the ASE.

Aside from the ASE recognition, other signs that we should look for an auto center include neat and well-organized facility complete with modern equipment, courteous staff, and good policies (regarding labor rates, diagnostic fees, guarantees, etc.)

Highly recommended by family and friends.

Nothing can attest to the quality service that any auto center and mechanic can give than testimonials of our family members, relatives, and friends. Ask for referrals and recommendations. Local community organizations and business listings are also good sources of information.

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Merits and Demerits of Equity Finance

Equity finance means the owner, own funds and finance. Usually small scale business such as partnerships and sole proprietorships are operated by their owner trough their own finance. Joint stock companies operate on the basis of equity shares, but their management is different from share holders and investors.

Merits of Equity Finance:

Following are the merits of equity finance:

(i) Permanent in Nature: Equity finance is permanent in nature. There is no need to repay it unless liquidation occur. Shares once sold remain in the market. If any share holder wants to sell those shares he can do so in the stock exchange where company is listed. However, this will not pose any liquidity problem for the company.

(ii) Solvency: Equity finance increases the solvency of the business. It also helps in increasing the financial standing. In times of need the share capital can be increased by inviting offers from the general public to subscribe for new shares. This will enable the company to successfully face the financial crisis.

(iii) Credit Worthiness: High equity finance increases credit worthiness. A business in which equity finance has high proportion can easily take loan from banks. In contrast to those companies which are under serious debt burden, no longer remain attractive for investors. Higher proportion of equity finance means that less money will be needed for payment of interest on loans and financial expenses, so much of the profit will be distributed among share holders.

(iv) No Interest: No interest is paid to any outsider in case of equity finance. This increases the net income of the business which can be used to expand the scale of operations.

(v) Motivation: As in equity finance all the profit remain with the owner, so it gives him motivation to work more hard. The sense of inspiration and care is greater in a business which is financed by owner's own money. This keeps the businessman conscious and active to seek opportunities and earn profit.

(vi) No Danger of Insolvency: As there is no borrowed capital so no repayment have to be made in any strict lime schedule. This makes the entrepreneur free from financial worries and there is no danger of insolvency.

(vii) Liquidation: In case of winding up or liquidation there is no outsiders charge on the assets of the business. All the assets remain with the owner.

(viii) Increasing Capital: Joint Stock companies can increases both the issued and authorized capital after fulfilling certain legal requirements. So in times of need finance can be raised by selling extra shares.

(ix) Macro Level Advantages: Equity finance produces many social and macro level advantages. First it reduces the elements of interest in the economy. This makes people Tree of financial worries and panic. Secondly the growth of joint stock companies allows a great number of people to share in its profit without taking active part in its management. Thus people can use their savings to earn monetary rewards over a long time.

Demerits of Equity Finance:

Following are the demerits of equity finance:

(i) Decrease in Working Capital: If majority of funds of business are invested in fixed assets then business may feel shortage of working capital. This problem is common in small scale businesses. The owner has a fixed amount of capital to start with and major proportion of it is consumed by fixed assets. So less is left to meet current expenses of the business. In large scale business, financial mismanagement can also lead to similar problems.

(ii) Difficulties in Making Regular Payments: In case of equity finance the businessman may feel problems in making payments of regular and recurring nature. Sales revenues sometimes may fall due to seasonal factors. If sufficient funds are not available then there would be difficulties in meeting short term liabilities.

(iii) Higher Taxes: As no interest has to be paid to any outsider so taxable income of the business is greater. This results in higher incidence of taxes. Further there is double taxation in certain cases. In case of joint stock company the whole income is taxed prior to any appropriation. When dividends are paid then they are again taxed from the income of recipients.

(iv) Limited Expansion: Due to equity finance the businessman is not able to increase the scale of operations. Expansion of the business needs huge finance for establishing new plant and capturing more markets. Small scales businesses also do not have any professional guidance available to them to extend their market. There is a general tendency that owners try to keep their business in such a limit so that they can keep affective control over it. As business is financed by the owner himself so he is very much obsessed with chances of fraud and embezzlement. These factors hinder the expansion of business.

(v) Lack of Research and Development: In a business which is run solely on equity finance, there is lack of research and development. Research activities take a long time and huge finance is needed to reach a new product or design. These research activities are no doubt costly but eventually when their outcome is launched in market, huge revenues are gained. But problem arises that if owner uses his own capital to finance such long term research projects then he will be facing problem in meeting short term liabilities. This factor discourages investment in research projects in a business financed by equity.

(vi) Delay in Replacement: Businesses that run on equity finance, face problems at the time of modernization or replacement of the capital equipments when it wears out. The owner tries to use the current equipments as long as possible. Sometimes he may even ignore the deteriorating quality of the production and keeps on running old equipment.

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Understanding Dimensions of Translational Motion in MCAT Physics

As a pre-med student preparing to take your MCAT, you want to ensure you have a solid foundation in Translational motion for the physical sciences section, not just in terms of how to solve equations and apply formulas, but also a conceptual understanding of the information.

Depending on the type of physics course you took in college, you would have learned how to solve translational motion questions in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions. Yet for the MCAT you only have to worry about solving kinematics questions in 1 or two dimensions, or sometimes a combination of the two.

Understanding the nature of these dimensions will be the first step in mastering MCAT physics. The concept of 'one dimension' refers to motion occurring in a single direction. The direction can face any which way but will never veer off course.

Common single dimension problems in MCAT physics will refer to motion happening in the x-direction, or in the y-direction.

Just because the two are oriented 90 degrees from each other, does not change they fact that they each represent a single direction.

In fact, you can even break from tradition in terms of what you call your 'x' or 'y' direction. The traditional graph you learned in school had you draw a line parallel to the horizontal as the x-direction, and other line perpendicular to the horizontal or parallel to the vertical as your y-direction.

And while this is still the case, you don't have to stick with this if you don't want to. You may choose to label your horizontal as 'y' and your vertical as 'x', as long as you are consistent with the associated math equations and appropriate units.

But let's not forget our two-dimensional questions. If you have a line represented on a graph, somewhere between the x and y components, this is said to occur in 2 dimensions, because we're not focusing on both the x-portion and y-portion of this line.

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Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux – Tutorial for All

Whether you are an end user, a system administrator, or a little of both, this book explains with step-by-step examples how to get most out of an Ubuntu system. The book is designed for a wide range of readers, appropriate for:

  • Students
  • Home Users
  • Professionals
  • System administrators
  • Computer Science

A " Practical guide to Ubuntu " gives you a broad understanding of many facets of Linux. No matter what your background, this book provides the knowledge you need to get on with your work. This book explains how to use Linux from graphical interface and from the command line. This book is designed so you can get the most out of it in the least amount of time. You do not have to read this book straight through in page order. Look up a topic of interest in the table of contents or in an index and read about it. The book includes many pointers to Web sites where you can obtain additional information.The Linux operating system, which was developed through the cooperation of many, many people around the world, is a product of the Internet and is a free operating system. In other words, all the source code is free. You are free to study it, redistribute it, and modify it. As a result, the code is available free of cost-no charge for the software, source, documentation, or support.

A rich selection of applications is available for Linux-both free and commercial-as well as a wide variety of tools: graphical, word processing, networking, security, administration, Web server, and many others. Large software companies have recently seen the benefit in supporting Linux and now have on-staff programmers whose job it is to design and code the Linux kernel, GNU, KDE, or other software that runs on Linux. Also is important to users is the amount of software that is available-not just source code (which needs to be compiled), but also pre-built binaries that are easy to install and ready to run. These programs include more than free software. Netscape, for example, has been available for Linux from the start and included Java support before it was available from many commercial vendors. Its sibling Mozilla / Thunderbird / Firefox is also a viable browser, mail client, and newsreader, performing many other functions as well.

All this is only one small parted of book. Chapters covered in this Book:

  • Installation
  • Working with Ubuntu Linux
  • System administration
  • Security
  • Clients and servers
  • Programming
  • Etc.
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In Your Sales Career, Do You Know What GRASP Means?

I am from the old school of sales that told you to approach everyone and hope that something will click. We call it spray and pray. Fortunately for me, I am a lifelong student and through my eagerness to learn more I have now come across the new age way of selling where you simply get better at finding prospects and your sales become more of order taking than hard sells. In other words you enable prospects to buy from you rather than you selling to them. Simple.

When you decide to get into sales you need to first get good at knowing your product (inside and out) and then getting good at getting other people to buy it from you. Depending on what you sell and the length of your sales cycle this can be a long time. So what do you do in the meantime? You GRASP

G stands for getting with the right people. First of all if it took your manager or sales trainer 30 years to be an expect you can cut that time short by simply modeling them and learning at lightning speed to become good very quickly. They have already made all the necessary mistakes so you don't have to. Cut right to the front of the queue my friend. Make sure you hang out with ONLY the people that can enhance your abilities and very quickly at that.

R stands for being Responsible. For what exactly? Everything. You will take charge of your sales training and classroom work and also take charge of your sales processes in your sales appointments. There is a lot of physiology and social dynamics that go into this one but for now just know that you need to take control of everything to do with your sales career. Be responsible for it.

A is for attitude. Have a great attitude. Never give up. This can never be explained enough. Salespeople are beaten down at every opportunity be it at family outings or dinner dates, every where. In fact the only place sales people are welcome is at their own sales awards ceremonies. OK maybe that's a little too much but salespeople need to always be composed so they can deal with all the negativity that surrounds this profession and also the prospects that do not buy at times which can be most of the time!

S is for systems and what you are selling. You should know all your sales systems and procedures be it, your pitch, turning objectives, legal stuff or simple order form filling. At the same time you should know your product inside out so you can deal with sales objections and also the general sales process. You see in sales procedures if you forget your pitch or anything at all to do with your product people do not see it that way. Instead they think there is something seriously wrong with the product and steer clear from you. Always represent your product positively using your knowledge of it.

P is for profit. The most lucrative sales jobs are commission based or at least part commission. Do not be carried away selling something exciting and forget about the bottom line. After your commute, your payments for sales leads, your lunch, your suit, your fancy cell phone or PC or maybe your ostentatious vehicle that cost more than your house make sure you are left with a profit. Never forget this, no matter what they may say, we all know salespeople are in for the money.

So there you have it. Make sure you GRASP your sales career.

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Can Options Trading Turn You Into a Millionaire?

Can options trading turn you into a millionaire?

This is one of those questions I hear from people new to options trading all the time and not an easy question to answer in my opinion. Sure, options trading can create millionaires and many, including myself, have made more an a million trading options. However, can options trading turn YOU into a millionaire?

In a way, asking this question is as good as asking questions like:

Can trading stocks turn you into a millionaire?

Can trading futures turn you into a millionaire?

Can trading Forex turn you into a millionaire?

Can selling burgers turn you into a millionaire?

Can collecting coins turn you into a millionaire?

The answer to all of these questions is a resounding, YES.

The problem is, can YOU become a millionaire doing these things that have made OTHER people millionaires?

First of all, let's ascertain the theoretical possibility of making a million through options trading. Let's assume you have $ 5000 to start trading options with and you make an average of 50% per trade and compound your earnings. Here's your account status after a number of trades:

After first trade – $ 7500

Second – $ 11,250

Third – $ 16,875

Forth – $ 25,312.5

Fifth – $ 37,968.75

Eighth – $ 128,144.5

Fourteenth – $ 1,459,646

As you can see, it takes only 14 trades at 50% profit per trade, which is not a lot in options trading, to grow $ 5000 into a million. If you do only one of those trades per month, it takes you only slightly more than a year to become a millionaire. As such, becoming a millionaire from options trading is clearly not outside the realm of possibility and clearly very fast if you do it right.

That leads us to the next question, are you able to produce a string of 14 straight wins at 50% per win? There is clearly no easy answer to this as well. I have heard of extremely lucky people who has done that before but that clearly isn't something that applies to everyone.

Yes, in my 15 years of options trading, I must say that I have never seen anyone make a string of 14 wins within one year or two without losing no matter what options strategy they use. The good news is, you don't need to make 50% on every win nor do you need a string of 14 wins to make a million in options trading as long as you follow a sensible trading methodology and have lots of patience.

Making a million in options trading isn't about not losing. It's really about making more wins than losses. As long as you have a means of consistently making more wins than losses, you can make a million in anything as long as you have the patience to stick to the game. Yes, this is the same logic in any form of trading.

If it is the same in any form of trading, why then options trading?

The beauty of options trading is that it actually helps you achieve more wins than losses through 2 unique means; Convexity and Versatility.

Convexity means being able to potentially make more money than you can potentially lose. In futures trading or stock trading, you can potentially lose as much money as you can win. When the stock goes up by $ 10, you make $ 10 worth of profit and if the stock goes down by $ 10, you sustain $ 10 worth of loss. There is no convexity. When you buy options, they will go up in value as long as the stock keep going in the correct direction (up for call options and down for put options) but if the stock goes the other direction, you will only lose as much as you used in buying the options, nothing more! For instance, if you bought one contract of call options for a stock for $ 150 and the stock went up by $ 10, you call options would be worth $ 1000 but if the stock went down by $ 10, you would only lose that $ 150 that you used. That's convexity. As long as you use only money you can afford to lose or the maximum amount you are willing to lose on any single trade towards buying options, you will always have the advantage of convexity on your side.

Versatility is found in the vast array of options strategies that can be put together. Many options strategies allow you to profit not only when the underlying stock moves in one direction but in multiple directions! Yes, in futures or stock trading, you only profit when the stock goes up or down (when you are short the stock or futures). However, in options trading, there are options strategies that allow you to profit when the stock goes up OR down in both directions and options strategies that even allow you to profit from all 3 directions! Yes, being able to profit in more than one direction greatly increases your possibility of winning and greatly enhances the possibility of consistently making more wins than losses!

So, can you become a millionaire trading options? Yes you can. In fact, from the properties of convexity and versatility mentioned above, options trading could actually make it easier for you to become a millionaire versus stock or futures trading. As such, the possibility is there and the odds are in your favor. The final question to answer is, do YOU ​​have what it takes to become a millionaire through options trading?

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Your Pharmacist Is A Bottleneck

You've been there. You go to the pharmacy to drop off your prescription. You start by waiting in line to give the technician your prescription. Once you hand it off, he tells you it will be, say, twenty minutes until the medication is ready to be picked up. You roam the store and come back in twenty minutes to find that your prescription is not ready. Naturally, you're a little perturbed. Ever wondered why it isn't ready?

When you drop off a prescription, it goes through multiple stages before it is sent to the register to be picked up by the customer. Once the pharmacy obtains the new prescription, the patient's name, date of birth, address, phone number, allergy information, and insurance information all have to be verified and updated if necessary. The prescription is then scanned into the computer so that an electronic copy can be made. The technician then has to manually input the data from the prescription. Once this happens, it is sent to the pharmacist, or in this case, the bottleneck. A bottleneck occurs when the limited capacity of a process causes work to pile up or become unevenly distributed in the flow of a process. Unless your pharmacist is Superman, he is going to be a bottleneck of the prescription filling process. With several technicians inputting medications, there is bound to be a pile of work at the pharmacist's station, since the typical ratio of technicians to pharmacists is 4 to 1.

The pharmacist must perform a function called "Four Point". This is where he checks to make sure that the technician input all of the information correctly and verifies that the doctor wrote for an appropriate therapy. At this point, insurance often plays a role in the delay of filling your "script", another bottleneck, of course. Insurance problems go back to the technicians, for troubleshooting. Once problems are resolved, the work is sent out to technicians who actually count your medication. Ever seen a technician starving? It happens. Starving occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work. Technicians cannot count the medication until the pharmacist gives the ok to do so. Since the pharmacist is the bottleneck in the whole operation, he starves the technicians of work. Once the technician counts the medication, it is set on racks in front of the pharmacist. This part of the process is called "Visual Verification". The pharmacist checks each medication to ensure that the correct drug and the correct quantity has been dispensed. Again, there is one pharmacist per four technicians. There tends to be a pile in front of the pharmacist at this point. Blocking may occur at this point. Blocking occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed. Often, there is no room to put the basket or tote that contains the medication in front of the pharmacist. Sometimes, it comes to the point where the pharmacist is so backed up that there are no totes available. When no totes are available, the technicians cannot carry on with work and count more medications, or your medication. Once the pharmacist ensures that the medication is correct, it is bagged.

The prescription must be checked in multiple ways at this stage. If the prescription is new to the patient, it has to be be bagged separately and differently than if the prescription is a refill. If the prescription costs more than a certain amount, say $ 50, the bagger indicates that the medicine must be paid for at the pharmacy and cannot be taken to another register in the store. Finally, the prescription is taken to the area for pick up. Now imagine a pharmacy that fills 700 prescriptions daily. An average pharmacy is open 12 hours. Your pharmacy is filling 58.3 prescriptions per hour. There are four technicians to do the labor, which amounts to 14.5 prescriptions each, per hour. A pharmacist checks all 58.3 prescriptions each hour. Of course we want to be certain that the pharmacist has done his job and we obtain the correct medication and are consulted and treated in a respectful manner. Pharmacies have found ways to install processes that ensure a smooth flow of work between the technicians and pharmacists. However, pharmacists are humans, not machines, and they have a major responsibility and liability towards each patient's health. We trust that they spend the appropriate amount of time reviewing our health history, the therapy suggested by the doctor and the implications it may have for us. Now, are you still mad?

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How To Have A Better Recovery From Foot Surgery

Foot surgery is often unique from other types of surgery in that the weight and stress of the body is placed directly on the surgical site during recovery, unlike abdominal surgery or back surgery. Even knee and hip procedures are not as directly affected post-operatively by the weight of the body on the ground as the foot. For this reason, recovery after foot surgery is often difficult for some, especially if the surgeon's instructions are not followed completely or are ignored. This article will discuss ways to help make recovery from foot surgery easier.

First and foremost, it must be mentioned that there are many different procedures that are performed on the foot and, by extension, ankle. Each of these procedures have different requirements for recovery, and some even have very unique instructions that must be followed for a successful recovery. The surgeon's specific instructions are important and must be followed. The advice in this article is meant to be a general guide to recovery from a typical foot surgical procedure, but may not offer a complete picture of an individual's specific recovery needs. The last word in one's specific recovery comes from their surgeon, and not this article. This should be kept in mind as one reads the following information.

Surgery is essentially an intended injury to the body. It is neither natural or healthy for an incision to be made into the skin and deeper tissue cut, moved, or removed. The body treats even the most skillfully performed surgery as an injury, similar to a stabbing wound, sprain, or broken bone. The body has a natural recovery process it initiates immediately upon being injured. This process involves an alphabet soup of chemicals, cells, and reactions that immediately set upon the injured tissue in an attempt to begin the mending process. This initial process is known as inflammation, and consists of swelling, warmth, and perhaps redness. It externally may look similar to an infection, as the body's response to bacteria is similar. This inflammation can create the majority of pain after foot surgery for several reasons. Firstly, the foot has a limited area that tissue can swell within, and any excessive swelling can push against nerves and other sensitive tissue causing pain. Secondly, since the foot is usually the lowest point of the body, gravity will naturally force fluid into the foot more than any other part of the body. The period of time this initial inflammation lasts is usually four to seven days after the surgery, with a gradually tapering after that time period. Moderate inflammation certainly will persist much longer following this time period, but the lion's share of the swelling and the various chemical reactions involved in the inflammatory process peaks and declines within the first week following surgery. Because of the potential of this process to cause a great deal of throbbing or stabbing pain following surgery, all instructions on icing, elevation of the foot, and activity restriction, which will all decrease the inflammation, should be followed. Sometimes anti-inflammatory medications are also used during this period to help decrease the inflammation. It should be recognized, however, that this inflammation is vital and necessary to the healing process, and some inflammation is needed to begin mending the surgical site. The body does tend to overdo this reaction significantly, and there is a great amount of inflammation that can be reduced to limit pain while leaving enough for the healing process.

Some pain following foot surgery is not directly related to the healing process, but to the actual incision or act of cutting. The foot contains an enormous network of nerves, many of which are minuscule. Foot surgeons are careful to avoid cutting visible nerves during surgical dissection (unless it is a nerve that is being removed). However, microscopic skin nerves do get severed during the act of making an incision, and this cannot be avoided. Sometimes, despite the most careful work, minor nerves do get damaged or severed during the surgical process. In general, all these nerves do heal uneventfully, but can create pain in the immediate days following surgery that is often unaltered by icing, elevation, or anti-inflammatory medication. This type of pain is best controlled by narcotic medication, and that is the very reason why narcotics are often prescribed for use after surgery. For the most part, narcotic use in foot surgery is usually limited to the first two or three weeks following surgery at the most. Pain that persists longer that is unrelieved by icing, elevation, or anti-inflammatory medications is unusual, and further investigation needs to be done by the surgeon to determine the cause. Of course, every patient's tolerance to pain is different, and there are those out there who are excessively sensitive to pain and discomfort. However, the vast majority of patients have little remaining pain three weeks following foot surgery, excepting for mild soreness or stiffness. There are a few procedures in which this may not be true, including surgery to release or sever nerve tissue, surgery that requires multiple procedures at the same time, complicated fracture repair, or major foot reconstruction. Because of the often traumatic nature of these procedures, the inflammation process or general nerve-related pain may last much longer.

One of the biggest mistakes people make after foot surgery, outside of not icing or elevating the foot, is to resume semi-normal activity shortly after the surgery. The unique point about foot surgery is that, unlike abdominal surgery for example, the body usually feels great shortly after the surgery. The desire and tendency to get up and become active is strong. Unfortunately, the foot is not in any position to resume normal activity, and the surgical site can actually be harmed by such activity. The tissues that are held together by stitches need time to mend, and immediate activity can stretch and pull on these fragile bindings. More inflammation, delayed healing, and future excessive scar tissue can result from early activity. The skin incision may even split open. By becoming active earlier earlier advised, the natural push of gravity will force fluid into the foot, increasing and prolonging the inflammation process, and possibly resulting in long term swelling that will persist months following surgery. If bone was operated on, and pins, wires, screws, or staples are holding the bone together, early activity against the advice of the surgeon can result in a fracturing of the bone, or at least a delayed or abnormally positioned healing. There are some procedures, particularly joint implant or remodeling procedures, that require early activity to prevent joint stiffness. By following the surgeon's specific instructions on post-operative activity, long term complications and unnecessary pain can be avoided.

One final way of making foot surgery recovery easier has to do with keeping the dressing clean and intact. One of the most common complications seen across all types of surgery that can make recovery difficult is infection. Although the surgery is performed in a sterile environment, bacteria can still invade the surgical site following surgery. Many times this is due to patients getting their dressing wet or heavily soiled. Bacteria has the capability to travel through multiple layers of gauze, and can easily invade the surgical site when helped along by water, or when material is smeared into the dressing that has a high bacterial count. Many people have natural resistance to bacteria on the skin level, but when an incision is present this can be an automatic portal for bacteria to enter the less resistant deeper tissue. There are also those who are at greater risk for infection, including diabetics and those with compromised immune systems. Surgical infections can run the range from simple skin infections that only need oral antibiotic medication to serious infections involving deep tissue and bone that need intravenous antibiotics, hospitalization, and possibly more surgery. By keeping one's dressing and bandages dry and clean, and by not removing the dressing before instructed to do so by the surgeon, one can have a reasonable sense of protection from infections. Of course, infections do sometimes occur out of the blue in even the healthiest of patients. However, these uncommon and spontaneous infections are hard to prevent or anticipate.

By ensuring that the foot is iced, elevated, rested, and kept dry and clean, the majority of issues that follow recovery from foot surgery can be reduced in severity or avoided altogether. Strict following of the surgeon's instructions is very important, as only the surgeon is truly aware of the nature of the surgery and what the subsequent recovery period requires. By keeping this in mind, one can ensure a comfortable and speedy recovery from foot surgery.

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Constraints on Participating in Leisure

In "Constraints to Leisure," Edgar L. Jackson and David Scott provide an overview of the field of leisure constraints research as of the late 1990s. They point out that originally researchers in the field studies what was then called "barriers to recreation participation," but the word "barriers" refers to what is now considered only one type of constraint – something that intervenes or prevents one from participating in an activity . But now other kinds of constraints are recognized, including one's interpersonal and intrapersonal influences, which lead one not to take part in leisure. In additional, Jackson and Scott explain that the word "leisure" is used rather than just recreation, since it is a more inclusive term, and the word "participation" was also dropped, since leisure research does only involve whether a persona participates , but what they prefer to do, where, and what a particular type of leisure means to them.

Jackson and Scott also discuss the three major ways of looking at leisure that have evolved since the leisure constraints approach began in the 19th century. It began with considerations of "barriers to recreation participation and leisure enjoyment" based on the assumption that the main issue to address was service delivery, so that people would participate more if there were more services provided.

Then, starting in the 1960s, the focus shifted to looking at how particular barriers might affect the participation by individuals with different economic and social characteristics. Later, in the 1980s, the notion of constraints emerged, and the researchers realized that these constraints might not only be external, such as in the form of a facility or service, but could be internal, such as a constraint due to psychological and economic factors, or to social or interpersonal factors, such as a person's relationships with his or her spouse or family.

Since the late 1980s, it would seem that three major concepts about the constraints affecting involvement in leisure activities have emerged, as described in a model proposed by Crawford and Godbey in 1987.

1) The structural or intervening constraint is one which affects someone from participating in some type of leisure, once the person already has indicated a preference for or desire to participate. As conceptualized by Crawford and Godbey, these structural or intervening constraints are "those factors that intervene between leisure preference and participation." (p. 307). Research based on this conception of a constraint generally involves doing a survey to identify the particular items standing in the way of participation, such as time, costs, facilities, knowledge of the service or facility, lack of a partner for participation (such as a Partner to participate in a doubles tennis match), and a lack of skills or a disability. The assumption underlying this approach is that a person would participate in any activity if not for these constraints, which seem much like the barriers conceived of when that term was in use. In looking for patterns and commonalities, using various quantitative methods such as factor analysis and cluster analysis, researchers found support for certain common structural and intervening constraints, most notably: "time commitments, costs, facilities and opportunities, skills and abilities, and transportation and access. " Additionally, the researchers sought to look at how different groups in society were constrained in different ways, such as women, or groups based on age and income, eventually leading researchers to recognize that most constraints are experienced to a greater or lesser degree depending on personal and situational factors.

2) An intrapersonal constraint is a psychological state or characteristic which affects leisure preferences, rather than acting as a barrier to participation once a person has already developed those preferences. For example, intrapersonal constraints which might lead a person not to develop particular leisure preferences might be that person's "abilities, personality needs, prior socialization, and perceived reference group attitudes."

3) An interpersonal constraint is one which occurs due to one's interaction with one's peers, family members, and others, leading one to think of certain leisure activities, places, or services as relevant or not relevant leisure activities to participate in. For instance, based on one's understandings from interacting with others one might consider certain types of leisure to be inappropriate, uninteresting, or unavailable.

Although a hierarchical model was proposed by DW Crawford, EL Jackson, an G. Godbey to combine these three concepts into a single model, based on one first forming leisure preferences on the intrapersonal level, then encountering constraints on the interpersonal level, and finally encountering structural or intervening constraints, it would seem there is no such sequential ordering of these constraints. Rather they seem to act together in varying ways and orders, though Henderson and other researchers have sought to combine intrapersonal and interpersonal constraints together to become antecedent constraints.

Whether such antecedents constraints exist or not, another way to look at whether people participate in a leisure experience based on the way they respond to a perceived constraint. If they participate and want to participate, that would be described as a "successful proactive response." If they don't participate though they would like to do so, that would be considered a "reactive response." Finally, if they participate but in a different way, that would be called a "partly successful proactive response."

A good illustration of this response to a constraint approach might be a mountain climber who suffers a disability. The climber who gets a prosthetic and climbs the mountain himself might be considered to be showing a "successful proactive response." The climber who decides to abandon the sport might be considered to be showing a "reactive response." Finally the climber who is helped to climb the mountain by a team of other climbers might be considered to be engaging in a "partly successful proactive response."

These ideas about constraints might be applied to how individuals get involved with some of the activities I have organized through several Meetup groups I run. These include an occasional Video Potluck Night, where people come to my house to see videos which I get at Blockbuster; feedback / discussion groups for indie film producers and directors, which might be considered a form of leisure, since most attendees are producing and directing films during their leisure time, often for free, and they have other paying jobs; and several teleseminars on writing, publishing, and promoting books, which is also more of a hobby for participants, since they hope to get books published, but have other jobs.

Structurally, some individuals who might attend these Meetup groups may be constrained because of the common structural problems that have been identified, including time commitments, costs, facilities and opportunities, skills and abilities, and transportation and access. Some people can't attend any of these activities, because they have another event to go to that time or they may have extra work to do, so they can't spare the time to attend. Though there is no cost for the meetings, some people may be constrained by the cost of getting to my house, including the gas and toll from San Francisco, Marin, or the Peninsula, and the cost of contributing something to the potluck (which many People have to buy because they don't have the time to make something).

Another constraint is that some people may be uncomfortable about going to an event in a private house. Some may not attend the discussion groups or teleseminars, because they feel their skills are not yet up to par, although they hope someday to become a produce and director or finish their book. Some may not attend because they have problems with access, since they have trouble getting to my house if they don't have a car, because they have problems getting there by bus or BART (which are 1-3 miles from my house respectively) , and they can't get a ride. And if someone has a serious disability, they will have trouble getting into my house, which is not wheelchair accessible.

The intrapersonal constraint may come into play when some people decide not to come because they feel uncomfortable in large groups or meeting new people, such as to the Video Potlucks, since these not only involve socializing before the film over dinner but then sharing during introductions and in a discussion of the film after the showing. Others may not come because they fear opening up and showing the work they have done since they fear criticism.

The interpersonal constraint may occur when some people decide not to come because their friends or family may be doing something else or their peers may put down going to the activity. For example, their peers may be interesting in attending and discussing first run films in theaters, whereas my video potluck nights feature films on DVD from Blockbuster that come out about three months later than a theatrical release. Or their peers may discourage them from attending a director or producer discussion group, since they will be discussing their work with others who are similarly trying to break into the industry or producing and directing small films as a hobby. Their peers may claim they should only go to programs where they will meet people who are already established in the industry or convince them they don't need any more feedback, since their project is already very good.

In short, these three concepts can be readily applied to understanding participation in the leisure activities I organize.

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Is Food Poisoning a Valid Workers' Compensation Claim?

Jobs can come with several types of hazards. From inclement weather and heavy lifting, to chemicals, violence, machinery, and more, an employee can be at risk of various workplace accidents. Under these circumstances, the risks are quite obvious. But there are also some unsuspecting risks that can happen at work. For instance, not many people would consider the food they eat at their place of employment as a risk, but it can be. Food poisoning is a common illness that can cause severe symptoms and pain for several days; and it can be easily contracted in a workplace setting given the right conditions.

Of course, there's always a risk of getting hurt or being involved in an accident when you step out into the world. But when it happens while you are at work, you may be entitled to compensation for your losses and damages, so long as the injury occurred while you were performing work-related duties. In the case of food poisoning, the contaminated food or drink must have been consumed while you were doing something for work specifically. If you were not performing work-related duties while consuming the contaminated food that caused you to develop food poisoning, then you would not have a valid workers' compensation claim; or, it would be extremely difficult proving that you do.

Continue reading to learn 3 examples in which food poisoning would be a valid workers' compensation claim, and a few more in which it would not.

3 Valid Workers' Comp Cases of Food Poisoning:

So remember, the contaminated food or beverage must have been consumed while an employee is either performing or participating in work-related activities. Review the 3 examples below for a better understanding of when food poisoning is work-related.

I. Your employer benefited from you eating the food . If your job is to taste food, and your employer benefited from you tasting and eating the food you ate, then you could have a valid workers' compensation claim. This could apply to food critics, food bloggers, restaurant cooks, servers, bartenders, and other vocations in which food tasting would be common part of the job.

II. Your employer provided the food . If your employer supplies the food that caused you to develop a food-borne illness, you could easily have a valid claim. For instance, if you were attending a mandatory paid work meeting that the employer had catered, and the food gave you food poisoning, it could be a valid workers' comp claim. In contrast, if you get sick from your own food you brought from home and ate at your desk, you would not.

III. You developed food poisoning from a workplace cafeteria that is for employees only. Some workplaces have cafeterias that are strictly for employees to eat in, while others may have one that is open to the general public and employees. If you develop a food-borne illness in a cafeteria setting that is provided by the employer strictly for employees, you could have a valid claim. If the café is public, you would not.

Get Legal Representation

It can be confusing to understand what constitutes "at work" or "performing work-related duties", so it is important to contact an experienced personal injury lawyer to determine if your workers' comp claim is a valid one or not. They have the resources, knowledge, and experience to assess your case for validity and implement the best strategies for financial recovery.

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